TECHNOLOGY

OptogeniX develops, produces and sells new devices for optical and electrical interfacing with the brain with revolutionary versatility and minimized invasiveness, overcoming the limitations of devices currently available on the market.

The proprietary design of Optogenix probes provides a unique approach for Optogenetics and Fiber Photometry experiments, allowing for uniform large-volume illumination and spatially addressable multi-point light delivery with extremely thin and sharp optical fibers.

OptogeniX technology is based on tapered fibers and their peculiar light delivery/collection properties.

Tapered Fibers (Lambda Fibers)

Tapered fibers are optical fibers that have been tapered down from their full width to less than 1um diameter.


The peculiar optical property of tapered fibers is that the optical modes guided by the fiber along its non-tapered portion are out-coupled (or
demultiplexed) at different positions along the taper.

This means that by exciting all the optical modes of the fiber (i.e. by injecting the light with an optical source having the same or higher Numerical Aperture than the fiber), light will be emitted diffusedly from the taper:

Even more interestingly, by exciting only a subset of modes – with special light delivery strategies; one method is to change the light entry angle at the input end of the fiber- it is possible to restrict light emission to only a sub-portion of the taper:

Riproduci video
This relation between the modal content of the guided light and the active portion or sub-portion of the taper is maintained when using a tapered fiber for Lambda light collection. OptogeniX provides tapered fibers as implantable fiber stubs under the name of Lambda fiber.

Flat Fibers vs Tapered Fibers

Tapered fibers enable a new way to conduct  Optogenetics and Fiber Photometry  experiments. Since light delivery / collection takes place from the taper surface, tapered fibers are typically inserted into the region to be controlled. Fortunately, the tapered profile with sub-micron tip diameter minimizes tissue displacement and insertion damage [1].

The portion of the taper that effectively emits/collects light is defined by the active length.

Nanomachined Tapered Fibers (Sigma Fibers)

Thanks to the collaboration with the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), we can operate advanced microfabrication processing to realize micro- and nano-machined tapered-fiber probes with optical apertures of different shape and size. These probes have even more versatile light delivery/collection capabilities than bare tapered fibers [2, 3].

These are some examples [3]:

These probes are called Sigma fibers.

Sigma fibers are largely customizable. Contact Us if you have a specific application idea in mind. We’ll do our best to satisfy your experimental needs.

FiberTrodes

We are continuously working on new methods for integrating microelectrodes on tapered fibers to realize fiber-based optrodes, or FiberTrodes.

LambdaTrodes

The simplest FiberTrode available is called the LambdaTrode. Basically, it is a Lambda fiber with one microelectrode placed very close (50µm) to the optically active taper.

The LambdaTrode is less invasive than the classical optrode (i.e. an optical fiber and a wire microelectrode glued together), and offers the unique light delivery/collection capabilities of Lambda fibers.

SigmaTrodes

Optrodes based on Sigma fibers are called SigmaTrodes. Currently, we are able to offer SigmaTrodes with one microelectrode placed at any position along the taper. Like the Sigma fibers, the SigmaTrodes are fully customizable.

Here’s an example of Sigma fiber with one 15µmx15µm optical window and associated 15µm diameter microelectrode.

APPLICATIONS

Optogenetics

Lambda fibers are able to emit light either from the whole taper or from a sub-section of it, depending on the way light is launched into the fiber.

Whole-taper light delivery

Light is emitted from the total available emitting length of the taper, whose extension depends on taper geometry and fiber Numerical Aperture.

This mode of operation is ideal for illuminating large brain volumes in a more homogeneous and efficient way than flat cut optical fibers. [1]

How to do : Whole-taper emission can be achieved with any Laser or LED source that is launched into the fiber. You can use your very own set up if it can inject light over the full numerical aperture of the fiber (must be NA_source ≥ NA_fiber)

Site-selective light delivery

Light is selectively emitted from sub-portions of the taper to illuminate volumes of tissue at different depths without probe movements. This mode of operation allows to i) selectively stimulate different brain volumes with a single probe [1] , or ii) correct for implantation errors and uncertainty.  

How to do: Optonenix ThetaStation is available for easy implementation of site-selective light delivery with Lambda fibers, allowing for continuous scanning of the emitting sub-portion of the tapered fiber.

Fiber Photometry

Tapered fibers allow for unprecedented light collection capabilities that are impossible to achieve with standard fibers.

With Lambda fibers in particular, three different collection configurations are possible to realize i) whole-taper Fiber Photometry; ii) site-selective Fiber Photometry, and iii) depth-resolved Fiber Photometry.

Whole-taper Fiber Photometry

Lambda fibers are able to collect light all along their active area. Fluorescence is collected nearly homogeneously from large functional regions such as the cortex or the striatum in the mouse.

When combined with whole-taper light delivery, this property translates in a higher signal collected from the Lambda fiber than from a flat fiber for similar illumination power density at the active optical surface [4].

How to do: This mode of operation is straightforwardly obtained by replacing a standard flat cut fiber with a Lambda fiber in a standard fiber photometry experiment.

Site-selective Fiber Photometry

This mode of operation refers to the possibility to selectively record from spatially-confined brain regions at arbitrary depth along the taper. Selectivity is obtained by controlling the position of the excitation, i.e. by site-selective light delivery, while the elicited fluorescence is collected by the whole taper [4].

How to do: Optogenix Magic Box has been specifically designed to perform both whole-taper and site-selective Fiber Photometry (in combination with ThetaStation). 

Depth-resolved Fiber Photometry (COOMING SOON)

This mode of operation refers to the possibility to combine whole-taper light delivery with simultaneous light collection from spatially-confined brain regions at arbitrary depth along the taper. 

REFERENCES

[4]  F. Pisano, et al., “Depth-resolved fiber photometry with a single tapered optical fiber implant”, Nature Methods (2019)

PUBLICATIONS

List of publications using OptogeniX technology

TECHNOLOGY

OptogeniX develops, produces and sells new devices for optical and electrical interfacing with the brain with revolutionary versatility and minimized invasiveness, overcoming the limitations of devices currently available on the market.

The proprietary design of Optogenix probes provides a unique approach for Optogenetics and Fiber Photometry experiments, allowing for uniform large-volume illumination and spatially addressable multi-point light delivery with extremely thin and sharp optical fibers.

OptogeniX technology is based on tapered fibers and their peculiar light delivery/collection properties.

Tapered Fibers (Lambda Fibers)

Tapered fibers are optical fibers that have been tapered down from their full width to less than 1um diameter.

The peculiar optical property of tapered fibers is that the optical modes guided by the fiber along its non-tapered portion are out-coupled (or demultiplexed) at different positions along the taper.

This means that by exciting all the optical modes of the fiber (i.e. by injecting the light with an optical source having the same or higher Numerical Aperture than the fiber), light will be emitted diffusedly from the taper:

Even more interestingly, by exciting only a subset of modes – with special light delivery strategies; one method is to change the light entry angle at the input end of the fiber- it is possible to restrict light emission to only a sub-portion of the taper:

Riproduci video

This relation between the modal content of the guided light and the active portion or sub-portion of the taper is maintained when using a tapered fiber for Lambda light collection.

OptogeniX provides tapered fibers as implantable fiber stubs Under the name of Lambda fiber.

Flat Fibers vs Tapered Fibers

Tapered fibers enable a new way to conduct Optogenetics and Fiber Photometry experiments. Since light delivery / collection takes place from the taper surface, tapered fibers are typically inserted into the region to be controlled. Fortunately, the tapered profile with sub-micron tip diameter minimizes tissue displacement and insertion damage [1].

The portion of the taper that effectively emits/collects light is defined by the active length.

Nanomachined Tapered Fibers (Sigma Fibers)

Thanks to the collaboration with the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), we can operate advanced microfabrication processing to realize micro- and nano-machined tapered-fiber probes with optical apertures of different shape and size. These probes have even more versatile light delivery/collection capabilities than bare tapered fibers [2, 3].

These are some examples [3]:

These probes are called Sigma fibers.

Sigma fibers are largely customizable. Contact Us if you have a specific application idea in mind. We’ll do our best to satisfy your experimental needs.

Tapered Fiber Optrodes

We are continuously working on new methods for integrating microelectrodes on tapered fibers to realize fiber-based optreodes, or Fiber-Optrodes.

LambdaTrodes

The simplest FiberTrode available is called the LambdaTrode. Basically, it is a Lambda fiber with one microelectrode placed very close (50µm) to the optically active taper.

The LambdaTrode is less invasive than the classical optrode (i.e. an optical fiber and a wire microelectrode glued together), and offers the unique light delivery/collection capabilities of Lambda fibers.

SigmaTrodes

Optrodes based on Sigma fibers are called SigmaTrodes. Currently, we are able to offer SigmaTrodes with one microelectrode placed at any position along the taper. Like the Sigma fibers, the SigmaTrodes are fully customizable.

Here’s an example of Sigma fiber with one 15µmx15µm optical window and associated 15µm diameter microelectrode.

APPLICATIONS

Optogenetics

Lambda fibers are able to emit light either from the whole taper or from a sub-section of it, depending on the way light is launched into the fiber.

Whole-taper light delivery: light is emitted from the total available emitting length of the taper, whose extension depends on taper geometry and fiber Numerical Aperture.

This mode of operation is ideal for illuminating large brain volumes in a more homogeneous and efficient way than flat cut optical fibers. [1]

How to do : Whole-taper emission can be achieved with any Laser or LED source that is launched into the fiber. You can use your very own set up if it can inject light over the full numerical aperture of the fiber (must be NA_source ≥ NA_fiber)

Site-selective light delivery: light is selectively emitted from sub-portions of the taper to illuminate volumes of tissue at different depths without probe movements. This mode of operation allows to i) selectively stimulate different brain volumes with a single probe, or ii) correct for implantation errors and uncertainty.  

How to do: OptogeniX ThetaStation is available for easy implementation of site-selective light delivery with Lambda fibers, allowing for continuous scanning of the emitting sub-portion of the tapered fiber.

Fiber Photometry

Tapered fibers allows for unconventional collection capabilities that are quite different with respect to flat fibers.

With Lambda fibers, three different collection configurations are possible, to realize what we call i) whole-taper Fiber Photometry; ii) site-selective Fiber Photometry, and iii) depth-resolved Fiber Photometry.

Whole-taper Fiber Photometry

Lambda fibers collect light all along their active area. Fluorescence is collected nearly homogeneously from large functional regions such as the cortex or the striatum in the mouse.

When combined with the whole-taper light delivery, this property translates in a higher signal collected from the Lambda fiber than from a flat fiber for similar illumination power density at the active optical surface [4].

How to do: This mode of operation is straightforwardly obtained by replacing a standard flat cut fiber with a Lambda-B fibers in a standard fiber photometry experiment.

Site-selective Fiber Photometry

This mode of operation refers to the possibility to selectively record from spatially-confined brain regions at arbitrary depth along the taper. Selectivity is obtained by controlling the position of the excitation, i.e. by site-selective light delivery, while the elicited fluorescence is collected by the whole taper.

How to do: Optogenix Magic Box has been specifically designed to perform both whole-taper Fiber Photometry and site-selective Fiber Photometry (in combination with the ThetaStation). See “Magic Box User Guide” for more information.

Depth-resolved Fiber Photometry

This mode of operation refers to the possibility to simultaneous record from spatially-confined brain regions at arbitrary depth along the taper the fluorescence with in combination with whole-taper light delivery [4]. NEW PRODUCTS COOMING SOON!

REFERENCES

[4]  F. Pisano, et al., “Depth-resolved fiber photometry with a single tapered optical fiber implant”, Nature Methods (2019)

PUBLICATIONS

List of publications using OptogeniX technology
OptogeniX Srl
via Barsanti c/o IIT
73010, Arnesano – ITALY
P.IVA IT04644390751
email: info@optogenix.com
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Partners & Distributors

Terms & Conditions

OptogeniX Srl
via Barsanti c/o IIT
73010, Arnesano – ITALY
P.IVA IT04644390751
email: info@optogenix.com

Privacy Policy
Cookie Policy