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Application | Optogenetics

Whole-taper light delivery

This mode of operation is typically employed with Lambda fibers (i.e. bare tapered fibers) to target large volumes of tissue more homogeneously and efficiently than flat fibers [1]. Lambda fibers are typically inserted into the region to be controlled. Fortunately, the tapered profile with sub-micron tip diameter minimizes tissue displacement and insertion damage [1].


Whole-taper emission can be achieved with any Laser or LED light source.
For correct operation, the Numerical Aperture (NA) of the light source should be at least equal to that of the tapered fiber (NA_source ≥ NA_fiber). Using a patch cable with the same NA of the tapered fiber is recommended.

Application | Optogenetics

Site-selective light delivery

This mode of operation is achieved by using OptogeniX dedicated equipment in combination with Lambda or Sigma fibers.

- With Lambda fibers

Light emission can be restricted to sub-portions of the taper by the use of unconventional light delivery methods [1]. Emission profiles depend on the type of fiber as well as the actual light source employed.


NR: This feature can also be employed to correct for implantation errors or uncertainty.

- With Sigma fibers

Light emission geometry is dictated by the shape and position of the optical windows realized in the metal layer that covers the fiber [2]. Selective activation of the optical windows can be obtained with specific configurations (i.e. the number and position of the windows) [3]. Here’s below an example with a two-windows Sigma fiber used to deliver light selectively to two different layers of the mouse cortex.


OptogeniX ThetaStation (mettere link) is available to operate site-selective light delivery with tapered fibers. See equipment documentation for more information.


[1]  F. Pisanello, et al.,” Dynamic illumination of spatially restricted or large brain volumes via a single tapered optical fiber“, Nature Neuroscience (2017)

[2]  F. Pisano, et al., “Focused ion beam nanomachining of tapered optical fibers for patterned light delivery” Microelectronic Engineering” (2018)

[3] F. Pisanello, et al., “Multipoint-emitting optical fibers for spatially addressable in vivo optogenetics”. Neuron (2014)

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